Do I need to get one?If you haven’t been diagnosed with Covid-19, or aren’t suspected to have it, home pulse oximeters “aren’t necessary”, says Shoshana Ungerleider, an internist at Crossover Health in San Francisco. This is particularly true if you’re not experiencing coronavirus symptoms, such as trouble breathing, severe cough or chest pain, and haven’t established a baseline.
Bosnia and Herzegovina holds its seventh general elections on 12 October. Since the end of the war, political allegiance has been usually based on ethnic identity. Ethnic politics will play its role in Sunday’s elections too, but there are other issues too. The debate, following protests earlier this year, has centred most on economic and social issues, allegedly corrupt politicians, stagnation and jobs – at 27.5%, the unemployment rate in Bosnia is consistently among the highest in the Balkans. The employment rate remains below 40%, and two-thirds of young people are jobless. Meanwhile, the salary of lawmakers is six times the country’s average wage – a rarely lopsided difference, making Bosnia’s MPs, relatively speaking, among the richest in Europe.
An additional blow to the economy were the devastating floods in May, which inflicted damages of €2bn (about 15% of the country’s GDP).
Facebook Twitter Pinterest The aerial view of homes and land submerged due to heavy rain fall in 24 hours in Doboj, central Bosnia. Photograph: Anadolu Agency/Getty ImagesBosnia is home to what is most probably the world’s most complicated system of government. Any understanding of this rather unique constitutional and institutional set up needs to begin with the Dayton Peace Accords.
Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia on 1 March 1992, triggering a secessionist bid by the country’s Serbs backed by Belgrade, and a war that left about 100,000 dead.
Facebook Twitter Pinterest April 6, 1992: A Bosnian paramilitary returns fire in downtown Sarajevo as he and civilians come under fire from Bosnian Serb snipers. Photograph: Mike Persson/AFP/Getty ImagesThe Dayton Peace Accords were signed in late 1995 and ended the conflict. The agreement achieved its immediate purpose of putting an end to the bloodshed, but it froze its ethnic divisions in place. The accords also bequeathed an extremely complex system of government, which has made governance extremely difficult.
Facebook Twitter Pinterest President Slobodan Milosevic of Serbia (L), President Alija Izetbegovic of Bosnia-Herzegovina (C) and President Franjo Tudjman of Croatia sign the Dayton Agreement peace accord at the Hope Hotel inside Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, November 21, 1995. Photograph: Eric Miller/Reuters
One country, two entitiesBosnia and Herzegovina comprises two entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Republika Srpska. The main cities in the Federation are the capital Sarajevo, and the cities of Mostar, Tuzla, Bihac and Zenica, while in the Republika Srpska entity the main cities are Banja Luka, Bijeljina, Prijedor and Trebinje. Formally part of both entities is the Brčko District, a multi-ethnic self-governing administrative unit.
“>Within this system there is the constant backdrop of different aspirations: Republika Srpska seeking greater autonomy, Croat parties angling for a third entity, and several Bosniak parties hoping for a more centrally governed country.
Facebook Twitter Pinterest Milorad Dodik, newly elected President of the Republic of Srpska(R) speaks after an official inauguration ceremony at the National Assembly in Banja Luka, Bosnia. Photograph: Radivoje Pavicic/APThe Federation is predominantly Bosniak (Muslims) and Croat (Catholics), while the Republika Srpska is Serb (Orthodox). The largest minorities are the Roma and Jewish communities. According to a 2013 census, Bosnia and Herzegovina has a population of about 3.8 million people. A demographic breakdown remains difficult as the 2013 census has yet to be fully completed, but according to the CIA Factbook the composition of the population is 48% Bosniak, 37.1% Serb, 14.3% Croat and 0.6% “others”.
A very complicated system of government1. A directly elected tripartite Presidency, which is in charge of foreign, diplomatic and military affairs, and the budget of state-level institutions. The three presidency members are from the three constituent nations – one Bosniak, one Serb, one Croat. Quite controversially, the candidates are “self-defined” as such and must only claim one identity, so you cannot have someone standing (or voting) for both the Bosniak and Croat member, or identifying outside these pre-constituted groups – for example, anyone who considers themselves as simply Bosnian, Roma or Croat and Jewish, is ineligible. Each member is separately elected by plurality vote (the candidate with most votes, but not necessarily a majority, wins).
Facebook Twitter Pinterest Members of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina Zeliko Komsic (L), Nebojsa Radmanovic (C), and Bakir Izetbegovic. Photograph: ADEM ALTAN/AFP/Getty Images2. The Parliament of Bosnia and Herzegovina encompasses a House of Representatives and a House of Peoples. The 42 members of the house of representatives are directly elected via a system of proportional representation. 28 members are elected in the Federation, 14 in the Republika Srpska. The 15 members of the house of peoples are indirectly elected by the entities’ parliaments, with two-thirds of members from the Federation (five Croats and five Bosniaks) and one-third from the Republika Srpska (five Serbs).
3. The Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina is nominated by the Presidency and approved by the House of Representatives – s/he is effectively the Prime Minister, and nominates ministers. The state government is in charge of security and defence (so enacting through legislation the decisions of the presidency), customs and immigration, fiscal and monetary policy, and facilitating inter-entity coordination and regulation.
4. At an entity level, both the Federation and the Republika Srpska have significant autonomy. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a directly-elected 98-member house of representatives. The Republika Srpska has an 83-member national assembly. Entities’ parliaments have jurisdiction over healthcare, education, agriculture, culture, veteran issues, labour, police and internal affairs.
5. At both state and entity levels, delegates to the upper houses have the primary duty of ensuring that there is agreement between constituent nations, and representatives of minorities, when confirming legislation.
6. Both entities have a Prime Minister and 16 ministries. The Federation is furthermore divided into 10 cantons, each with its own administrative government and relative autonomy on local issues such as education and health care.
The voting system (for elections taking place on Sunday)Members of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s parliament are elected through open lists and via proportional representation.
At a state level, Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided into eight electoral units, three in the Republika Srpska and five in the Federation.
Each presidency member is separately elected by plurality vote with each voter in the Federation choosing either a Bosniak or Croat candidate, and those in the Republika Srpska electing a Serb candidate.
The Central Electoral Commission reports an electorate of 3.2 million voters.
Facebook Twitter Pinterest A man walks past a wall decorated with posters of political parties and candidates for the parliamentary elections in central Sarajevo September 28, 2010. Photograph: Danilo Krstanovic/ReutersThe main parties65 parties, 24 independent candidates and 24 coalitions are eligible to run in Sunday’s election.
These are the main parties:
Social Democratic Party SDP – centre-left